Evolution of Business- Human is a social being. He lives in the society. He do his work according to society in which he is living. Human activities are so diverse and comprehensive that a single person cannot handle all such. activities. In the beginning of civilization human life was very simple and ordinary. His needs were very limited so he was able to fulfil his requirements. By effluxion of time and increasing in population the 3 needs of human being have increased and consequently human being started production activities for the satisfaction of his needs and also barter system. By and by men commenced selling and buying of the things. It was just commencement of business. Business activities has developed with the effluxion of time.
Modern business is the converted form of continuous changements of business activities.
Stages of development of business and industrial development can be discussed as under:
1. Self-development Stages:
In the stages of self-dependence people killed animals and birds to satisfy their hunger. They drank
water from the pond. Following were the main features of the stages of self-dependence:
- If he wanted to protect himself from the changing weather, he would cover himself with leaves.
- His dwelling was made of branches, twigs and leaves for shelter.
- Fruits, fish, meat of animals and birds were the main diet.
- The wood for plucking fruits and arms of stone were his properties.
- Their lives were uncertain and troublesome and they always fought with one another.
2. Pastoral Stage
After self-dependence stage, pastoral stage comes, The main features of this stage can be discussed as under:
- Their main task was to graze animals.
- They started living in families.
- Their life revolved around animals. Their lives had some stability.
- Their staple diet now was milk obtained from animals.
- They started wearing clothes made of wool.
- Huts were made out of animal skin and leaves.
- Instead of killing people during wars, primitive men would make them as their slaves.
- Slaves and animals comprised of their wealth.
- Horses, camels, etc. were used to carry their luggage.
- Utensils were made of clay, needles, knives and other sharp instruments were made of bones.
3. Aricultural Stage
Slowly and steadily men reached a higher stage. They saw trees and plants growing, which increased their knowledge. Men commenced farming, and built houses near teir farms. They started living with their families. Villages took the form of towns and land, bull and plough became a person’s wealth, labour class emerged.
Following features can be given of this stage:
- Grains, vegetables, milk comprised diet.
- Man started wearing cloth made of cotton.
- Mud houses were constructed. They started living togegher in a village.
- Agricultural tools, animals and land were wealth.
- People started exchanging various things. Barter system came into existence.
- Labour class came into existence with the emergence of slavery.
- People started living in groups together forming villages.
4. Handicraft Stage
Main features of this stage are as under:
- Population increased The age between 14th and 15 century is known as handicraft stage. With the development of agriculture, handicraft also developed. People were divided into classes. They were known by their professions – blacksmith, cobbler barher, Washerman, tailor, goldsmith etc.
- Machines were still not invented and every product was produced with the help of tools.
- Production was limited to cater the needs.
- Markets started expanding.
- Cottage industries were established. agriculturist, blackmith, carpenter etc.
- People were divided into many communities known as
- Labourers were engaged in production. Since machineries were not invented, goods were produced with the help of hand made tools.
- Transport developed in this stage.
- Society became divided into castes and sub-castes. Marriages took place within one’s community.
5. Cottage Industry Stage
The features of this stage can be given as under:
- Industry and trade became separate entities.
- Relationship was established between consumers and producers.
- Transport was further developed. Market was also developed. Traders started giving orders to the labourers to produce goods according to customers satisfaction. Family members of the labourers helped them to produce goods.
- Craftsmen came together to form their own guilds. They started producing goods with the help of their family members in their houses.
- Small scale production of goods was being done to fulfil the needs of consumers.
- Simple and very easy to operate tools were used.
- Business relations started among producers and consumers.
संविधान निर्माण की प्रक्रिया का वर्णन कीजिए।(Discuss the procedure of the construction of Constitution.)
6. Industrial Stage
Cottage industries was replaced by big industries and labour was replaced by machines. The features this stage can be given as under:
- Water, rail and road transport were developed due to which international and national trade emerged. Banks and insurance companies were also developed.
- Goods are produced in bulk with the help of machines. Production has increased because of the invention of new and automatic machineries.
- Coal, water and electricity are widely used in production.
- Production has been started in the workshops instead of homes.
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